Lifestyle diseases in India
Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) and other Institutes conduct studies on lifestyle disease. According to ICMR India State-Level Disease Burden Study report “India: Health of the Nation’s States”, the estimated proportion of all deaths due to Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) has increased from 37.09% in 1990 to 61.8% in 2016.
As per the National Family Health Survey (NFHS); 2015-16, 11% of women (1 in 10) and 15% of men (1 in 7) of age 15-49 are hypertensive. The survey has also found that about 60.4% of persons screened have ever had their blood pressure measured.
As per ICMR’s cancer registry data, the estimated incidences of cancer patients in India are 13,28,229, 13,88,397, 14,51,417 and 15,17,426 during the years 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2017, respectively. While estimated deaths due to cancer during these years are 670541, 701007, 732921 and 766348, respectively.
The Government has formulated the National Health Policy, 2017, which aims attainment of the highest possible level of good health and well-being for all at all ages, through a preventive and promotive health care orientation in all the developmental policies, and universal access to good quality health care services without anyone having to face financial hardship as a consequence. The policy seeks to move away from Sick- care to Wellness, with thrust on prevention and Health promotion. The policy, inter alia, seeks to reduce premature mortality from cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes or chronic respiratory diseases.
Government of India is also implementing National Programme for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Diseases and Stroke (NPCDCS) under the National Health Mission. The objective of the programme includes awareness generation for Cancer prevention, screening, early detection and referral to an appropriate level institution for treatment. For Cancer, the focus is on three Cancer namely breast, cervical and oral.
Further, for early diagnosis, population level initiative of prevention, control and screening of common NCDs (diabetes, hypertension and cancers viz. oral, breast and cervical cancer) has been rolled out in over 150 districts of the country in 2017-18 under NHM, as a part of comprehensive primary healthcare. This initiative will not only help in early diagnosis but also will generate awareness on risk factors of common NCDs.
Under PradhanMantriSwasthyaSurakshaYojana(PMSSY), 6 new AIIMS have been set up and upgradation of identified medical colleges has been undertaken which will also improve tertiary care facilities for NCDs including Diabetes.
In collaboration with the Ministry of AYUSH, an initiative to use the knowledge available in AYUSH system of medicines for prevention and control of Non-communicable Diseases is being implemented in 6 districts on pilot basis.
The Minister of State (Health and Family Welfare), Smt Anupriya Patel stated this in a written reply in the Rajya Sabha here today.