The Nexus of Mafia and Drug Networks in Manipur: A Complex Crisis review from the media angle

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The Nexus of Mafia and Drug Networks in Manipur: A Complex Crisis review from the media angle

By Suman Munshi

The most important issue at this moment in North East is the Manipur crisis. The third term of PM Modi is going to address these issues with root cause treatments needed by the nation. Let’s look at the issue from a media angle and areas need to be looked at from all walks of society angle within the law and ethical stand. Like Kashmir all North East long pending issues needs to be solved for once and all.

Manipur, a picturesque state in northeastern India, has been grappling with an intricate web of challenges that extend beyond ethnic tensions and socio-political disputes. Central to these issues is the burgeoning nexus of mafia operations and drug trafficking, which have profoundly impacted the region’s stability and security.

The Rise of Drug Trade in Manipur

Manipur’s strategic location near the infamous “Golden Triangle”—a major opium-producing area that spans Myanmar, Laos, and Thailand—makes it a critical hub for drug trafficking. The porous borders with Myanmar facilitate the flow of illicit drugs into and out of the region, primarily heroin and methamphetamines. Over recent years, there has been a significant shift from merely being a transit route to becoming a production center, especially for poppy cultivation and synthetic drug manufacturing​ (Frontier Manipur)​​ (Insights IAS)​.

Poppy cultivation, in particular, has expanded in the hill districts of Manipur, often under the control of local and international drug cartels. These plantations are not just lucrative but also serve as a source of income for many impoverished communities in the region. The state’s rugged terrain and the socio-economic vulnerabilities of its inhabitants have further complicated efforts to combat this illicit industry​ (Rediff)​.

Ethnic Violence and Drug Cartels

The interplay between ethnic conflict and drug trafficking is a critical aspect of Manipur’s turmoil. The state has witnessed severe violence, notably between the Meitei and Kuki communities, which has been exacerbated by underlying issues related to land and identity. The Kuki community, predominantly residing in the hilly areas, is deeply involved in poppy cultivation, which has brought them into direct conflict with anti-drug operations led by the state government​ (Rediff)​​ (Insights IAS)​.

Manipur’s Chief Minister N Biren Singh’s “War on Drugs” campaign, initiated in 2018, targeted large-scale poppy cultivation and the broader drug trafficking networks. While this campaign has been credited with significant seizures and destruction of poppy fields, it has also fueled discontent among hill tribes, who view these actions as an attack on their livelihoods and autonomy​ (Frontier Manipur)​.

The ethnic violence that erupted in May 2023 is believed to have been partly instigated by disputes over the control of drug trafficking routes and the economic benefits derived from the drug trade. There are allegations that some militant groups, involved in the conflict, are also deeply entrenched in the drug trade, using the revenues to fund their operations​ (Rediff)​.

The Role of Organized Crime

Organized crime syndicates play a pivotal role in the drug economy of Manipur. These syndicates are often transnational, with networks extending across Southeast Asia. They exploit the region’s instability and leverage local grievances to maintain their control over drug production and trafficking routes. The involvement of these mafias not only perpetuates the cycle of violence but also undermines state authority and efforts to establish peace​ (Frontier Manipur)​.

The intersection of the drug trade with local politics further complicates the scenario. Allegations of political patronage and corruption have surfaced, suggesting that certain political entities may have covert ties with these illegal operations, thus hampering effective enforcement actions​ (Insights IAS)​.

Addressing the Crisis

Combating the intertwined issues of drug trafficking and mafia operations in Manipur requires a multi-faceted approach:

  1. Strengthening Border Controls: Enhancing surveillance and security along the Myanmar border is crucial to curb the smuggling of drugs and other contraband.
  2. Economic Alternatives: Providing alternative livelihood opportunities for those involved in poppy cultivation is essential to reduce their dependence on the drug trade.
  3. Community Engagement: Building trust and collaboration with local communities can help in garnering support for anti-drug campaigns and initiatives aimed at fostering peace.
  4. International Cooperation: Collaborating with neighboring countries and international agencies to dismantle the transnational drug networks is vital for long-term success.
  5. Political Will and Integrity: Ensuring that political and law enforcement actions are free from corruption and genuinely aimed at tackling the root causes of the drug problem is critical.

Manipur’s path to stability and prosperity hinges on effectively addressing these deep-seated issues. The nexus of the mafia and drug networks not only fuels local conflicts but also poses a significant threat to national security. A concerted and holistic effort is needed to dismantle these networks and restore peace and order in the region.

The involvement of Indian political parties in the illegal drug trade in Manipur is a contentious and complex issue. While direct evidence implicating political parties is often elusive, numerous reports and allegations suggest that the drug trade in Manipur is deeply intertwined with political dynamics and corruption.

Allegations and Evidence of Political Involvement

  1. Political Patronage and Corruption: Several sources have pointed to the complicity of political figures and local authorities in the drug trade. For instance, there are allegations that certain politicians provide protection to drug lords and traffickers in exchange for financial support or votes during elections. This symbiotic relationship helps drug networks operate with relative impunity​ (Rediff)​​ (Insights IAS)​.
  2. Political Tensions and the Drug Economy: The ethnic violence in Manipur, particularly between the Meitei and Kuki communities, has been linked to the control of the drug trade. Some reports suggest that political parties and local leaders may exploit these ethnic tensions to maintain their influence over drug trafficking routes and operations. For example, the BJP-led government’s aggressive anti-drug campaign has reportedly targeted regions predominantly inhabited by the Kuki community, who are accused of being heavily involved in poppy cultivation​ (Frontier Manipur)​.
  3. Involvement of Insurgents and Militants: Insurgent groups in Manipur, some of which have political affiliations or receive tacit support from local political entities, are believed to be major players in the drug trade. These groups often fund their operations through the production and trafficking of narcotics. Political parties may indirectly benefit from or support these groups to maintain control over certain areas​ (Rediff)​​ (Insights IAS)​.
  4. Notable Cases and Political Figures: Specific incidents and individuals have drawn scrutiny. For instance, the arrest of influential individuals, including relatives of prominent political leaders, in drug-related cases has fueled suspicions of political involvement. In 2018, the son of a former BJP leader was arrested with a large cache of narcotics, highlighting potential links between the party and the drug trade​ (Frontier Manipur)​.
  5. Cross-Border Connections: The drug trade in Manipur is not confined within state boundaries; it involves extensive cross-border smuggling, particularly with Myanmar. Political figures are sometimes accused of leveraging their connections with international networks for personal or political gain. This transnational aspect complicates efforts to curb the drug trade and investigate political involvement​ (Insights IAS)​.

Investigative Reports and Insights

  1. Insights from Former Officials: Former law enforcement and intelligence officials have often hinted at the deep-rooted connections between political entities and the drug trade. They argue that any serious crackdown on narcotics would likely implicate powerful political figures, which makes enforcement challenging​ (Insights IAS)​.
  2. Media Exposés: Investigative journalism has played a crucial role in uncovering the nexus between politics and the drug trade in Manipur. Reports from reputable sources like The Wire and The Frontier Manipur have provided detailed accounts of how political machinations facilitate drug trafficking and how electoral politics often intersect with illegal activities​ (Frontier Manipur)​.
  3. NGO and Civil Society Reports: Various NGOs and civil society organizations have documented the impact of the drug trade on local communities and have called for greater transparency and accountability from political leaders. Their reports highlight the need for political reforms and stronger anti-corruption measures to dismantle the drug-mafia nexus​ (Rediff)​.

Challenges in Prosecution and Accountability

  1. Lack of Concrete Evidence: Proving direct involvement of political parties or their leaders in the drug trade is fraught with difficulties. Drug networks operate through layers of intermediaries, making it hard to trace the involvement back to high-level political figures​ (Frontier Manipur)​.
  2. Political Influence and Pressure: Law enforcement agencies often face political pressure and interference, which can hinder investigations and prosecutions. The fear of repercussions and the influence wielded by those implicated make it challenging to pursue cases against powerful individuals​ (Rediff)​.
  3. Systemic Corruption: The systemic nature of corruption in the political and law enforcement landscape in Manipur allows the drug trade to thrive. Corruption at various levels of government can stymie efforts to enforce anti-drug laws and can even enable the continued operation of drug cartels​ (Insights IAS)​.


While direct links between political parties and the drug trade in Manipur are difficult to establish conclusively, the circumstantial evidence and recurring allegations suggest a troubling intersection of politics and illegal activities. Addressing this issue requires a comprehensive strategy that includes strengthening law enforcement, ensuring judicial independence, and promoting political accountability. For sustainable peace and development in Manipur, it is imperative to dismantle the deeply entrenched nexus between the political and the criminal elements involved in the drug trade.

The crisis in Manipur, characterized by ethnic violence, political instability, and the pervasive drug trade, is significantly influenced by various foreign factors. These influences stem from Manipur’s strategic geographical position, its porous borders, and the complex regional dynamics of Southeast Asia.

Key Foreign Influences on the Manipur Crisis

  1. Geopolitical Location and the “Golden Triangle”Manipur’s proximity to Myanmar, part of the “Golden Triangle”—a major drug-producing area involving Myanmar, Laos, and Thailand—makes it a crucial node in the regional drug trade. The porous India-Myanmar border facilitates the smuggling of narcotics, arms, and other contraband into and out of Manipur.
    • Drug Trafficking: Myanmar’s Shan State is a well-known production area for heroin and methamphetamines. These drugs often make their way into Manipur, where they are either consumed locally or transported further into India and beyond. The thriving drug trade finances various insurgent and criminal groups in the region​ (Rediff)​​ (Insights IAS)​.
    • Arms Smuggling: The same routes used for drug trafficking are often employed for smuggling arms. Insurgent groups in Manipur acquire weapons through these channels, exacerbating violence and instability​ (Insights IAS)​.
  2. Ethnic and Political Dynamics with MyanmarThe ethnic composition of Manipur, especially the Kuki and Naga communities, extends across the India-Myanmar border. These cross-border ethnic ties have significant implications for the region’s stability.
    • Refugee Influx: Political and ethnic conflicts in Myanmar, particularly involving the Kuki-Chin communities, have led to an influx of refugees into Manipur. This movement of people has intensified local ethnic tensions and placed additional strain on resources and governance​ (Insights IAS)​.
    • Insurgent Collaboration: Some insurgent groups in Manipur, such as the National Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN) and various Kuki factions, maintain bases and operational links in Myanmar. This cross-border insurgent activity complicates security efforts and fuels ongoing conflict​ (Frontier Manipur)​.
  3. China’s Strategic InterestsChina’s influence in Northeast India, including Manipur, is part of its broader strategic objectives in South Asia. While not directly implicated in the Manipur crisis, China’s regional ambitions and relationships with neighboring countries impact the security dynamics in Manipur.
    • Border Security: China’s growing infrastructure and military presence in Tibet and along its borders with India are a strategic concern for India. This influences India’s security policies in the Northeast, including Manipur, as India seeks to secure its frontiers against potential Chinese influence​ (Rediff)​.
    • Economic Influence: China’s economic projects in Myanmar, under the Belt and Road Initiative, have indirect effects on Manipur. Increased Chinese investment and influence in Myanmar can alter the regional balance, impacting cross-border trade and security dynamics​ (Insights IAS)​.
  4. International Drug NetworksThe global narcotics trade involves complex networks that link local producers and traffickers in Manipur with international markets.
    • Transnational Crime: International crime syndicates often use Manipur as a transit point for drugs destined for global markets. This integration into the international drug trade makes local drug enforcement challenges part of a larger transnational issue​ (Rediff)​.
    • Money Laundering and Financing: The proceeds from the drug trade in Manipur often find their way into international financial systems, complicating efforts to trace and dismantle these networks. This global financial aspect adds another layer of complexity to the local crisis​ (Insights IAS)​.
  5. Bangladesh’s RoleBangladesh, sharing a border with Northeast India, including parts of Manipur, also plays a role in the regional dynamics.
    • Smuggling Routes: The India-Bangladesh border is another conduit for illegal smuggling, including drugs, arms, and human trafficking. These routes complement those from Myanmar, creating a multi-directional flow of contraband into Manipur​ (Frontier Manipur)​.
    • Ethnic Tensions: Ethnic and religious minorities from Bangladesh, including the Rohingya, sometimes transit through Manipur in their attempts to seek refuge, adding to the region’s ethnic complexities and security challenges​ (Insights IAS)​.

The Impact on Churachandpur

Churachandpur, a significant town in Manipur’s Kuki-dominated region, illustrates the profound impact of these foreign influences:

  • Refugee Crisis: The town has been a refuge for ethnic Kuki-Chin people fleeing violence in Myanmar. This influx has strained local resources and heightened ethnic tensions within Manipur​ (Rediff)​.
  • Drug Trade Nexus: Churachandpur is a hotspot for poppy cultivation and drug trafficking, driven by both local economic needs and the influence of cross-border criminal networks. The town’s involvement in the drug trade makes it a focal point for both state crackdowns and criminal activity​ (Frontier Manipur)​.
  • Security Challenges: The presence of insurgent groups with cross-border links in Myanmar and Bangladesh complicates the security environment in Churachandpur, making it a site of frequent violence and instability​ (Insights IAS)​.


Foreign influences significantly shape the crisis in Manipur, adding layers of complexity to an already volatile situation. From the smuggling networks that traverse its porous borders to the geopolitical interests of neighboring countries and global criminal syndicates, Manipur is at the crossroads of regional and international dynamics. Addressing these influences requires coordinated efforts at both the national and international levels, focusing on border security, regional cooperation, and the integration of local communities into broader economic and social frameworks.

***Published under freedom of expression and IBG NEWS neither agree nor disagree with the same.Different News sources has been referred for indicating their investigative findings as a total part of the research. All data are based on public domain data and different news sources.***

About Post Author

Editor Desk

Antara Tripathy M.Sc., B.Ed. by qualification and bring 15 years of media reporting experience.. Coverred many illustarted events like, G20, ICC,MCCI,British High Commission, Bangladesh etc. She took over from the founder Editor of IBG NEWS Suman Munshi (15/Mar/2012- 09/Aug/2018 and October 2020 to 13 June 2023).
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